THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE IMMIGRATION OF HUMAN POTENTIALS
In the business environment, the basic resources of each organization are people and their abilities, which enable them to solve the set tasks, and thus to achieve the common goals of the organization. Every man is shaped by his amount of knowledge, readiness for further learning, creativity, and motivation toward work, which is different from other resources in the enterprise. To make a company more competitive, employees are important, adding value to the business itself and its products or services. Human Resource Management (HRM) is a special science management discipline that includes all processes and activities that aim at managing an organization’s human resources. HRM covers virtually all aspects of relationships with employees in an organization.
It also affects the following areas:
Selection system for employment, employee analysis
increase employee productivity
development and education
legal regulations, trade unions, protection of employees, etc.
To achieve the best results of a business, it is important to have a well-defined organization, its goals, and human resources management in the enterprise, and that is what human resource management is all about. Concrete definitions refer to its human resources management function for successful achievement of set goals, as word management itself means managing. Human Resource Management can be defined as a management activity that implies selecting, developing, maintaining, adapting, directing and using human resources in accordance with the goals of the enterprise while at the same time meeting the individual needs and goals of the employees. The term “human resources” tells us about people in the work organization, about their potential, as well as about all the abilities they can provide to the organization in order to achieve its long-term and short-term goals. In the past, this term was too rough to mark it as living beings because it was a resource that would mean something that would mean equipment in the organization, things that the organization has available for further work, but not human potential. However, it turned out that the very concept of “resource” people is gaining a very important place because they put it in an equal position with other resources, perhaps even better, because their knowledge of quality management requires certain knowledge and skills. People are the basic factor that is common to every organization, and they are the creators of the strategy of every enterprise, what is the importance of human resource management. For this reason, every manager is involved in human resource activities and seeks to facilitate co-operation among people in order to achieve a more successful strategy and realize the organization’s plans. The strategies of the company are in the hands of human resources, which by achieving their goals enable the realization of the strategies of the companies themselves. Global competition encourages organizations to stay steady and progress in order to survive the new demands of globalization. If we have a good human potential, high quality and educated human resources, it is possible to respond to the challenges and challenges we face constantly. Human resource education in the organization is of great importance for its development and progress. This is best shown in the following picture.
Human resources as a modern management concept
Employee companies with their knowledge and skills are the main resource without which business operations would not be possible. The economic efficiency of an enterprise depends on human resources. Employees create products and services, strive to maintain and control quality, sell products to market, manage merchandise flows, financial resources, determine and implement the company’s strategy, and set weekly, monthly, and annual goals. If employees are not effective enough, there is a problem with achieving the goals. Human resources are the main cost of business. In Western countries, especially in large companies, labor costs account for 20-30% of total costs, somewhere up to 50%. In transition economies, due to lower labor costs, this percentage is somewhat lower, but it is not negligible. Human resources imply the total spiritual and physical potential of the employee, both exploited and untapped potential. The foundation for presenting people as a resource is the aspiration to equalize this potential in dealing with other business resources of the enterprise. Human resources have the knowledge necessary to perform work activities and the development of a company. They have innovative qualities, intellectual, biological and physiological potentials without which the process of work can not be completed. Acquiring this resource and its engagement is a key task of enterprise management. For this reason, the entire concept of treatment of employees in the enterprise as human resources has developed within the management, at the stage of its development when it is competent to carry out a significant part of the activities related to employees transferred from the staff manager to other managers in the enterprise. Human resources management ( Human Resource Management) has emerged in organizational practice since the early 1990s, when the human factor began to be perceived as a subject of management. Human resources management is positioned in the sphere of leadership or direction of people in the organization, and it is based on key categories of organizational behavior such as: motivation, relationships of individuals and groups, organizational socialization, organizational culture etc. To efficiently manage this resource, certain theoretical knowledge, as well as specific methods, processes and procedures to use human potential, or to direct its development. The use and development of human resources should be directed towards realizing the company’s ultimate goals, ie its development and business policy. However, effective and effective human resources management must take into account the interests of people, not just company goals. It is true that the enterprise uses human potential as a means of achieving set goals, but people also use the enterprise to achieve their own personal interests (earnings, experience, affirmation, etc.). Management of work and human resources development is closely related to the management and development of the enterprise itself. Consequently, in the new concept of management, apart from the technological, organizational and economic components, social and psychological components must be significantly greater. Only in this way can the appropriate harmony be struck between the company’s business resources, which is a prerequisite for its successful business and harmonious development. The modern management concept, which manages human resources, deals with the strategic, individual and social aspects of people in the organization. In addition, this aspect of management takes care of competitiveness – it includes all decisions and actions in managing people that create or support competitive advantage. It is difficult to include the whole term of human resource management by one definition, but it is possible to point out that this would imply concern for people within the organization. This refers to finding the right and experienced people for the organization, which would influence the training and development of employees and encouragement through motivation, in order to succeed in retaining such a staff. So it could be said that human resource management consists of the employment, development, motivation and retention of employees. Every organization is successful as much as it possesses high-quality human resources. Achieving the maximum of employees, their motivation and performance in work are crucial, so each organization has a human resources department in its organizational structure. It could be said that the purpose of human resources management is precisely to improve the work of employees in every possible way. Today, competition is enormous and imposes the need for more qualified employees, so it is essential that human resource experts educate and specialize in many scientific disciplines (psychology, law, sociology …). Enterprises should influence the education and continuous improvement of their employees, as well as encourage better work and contribution in the organization. Employee satisfaction will affect their success and loyalty to the organization. Human resource management experts have great significance for the companies they work with and their role is increasing. They should work with other levels of management in their organization to make the most of the human resources available to achieve the goals of the organization. We can say that the role of human resources management is the task of every manager, regardless of his engagement, to provide maximum support to employees.
Human Resource Management Objectives
In order to achieve certain goals in the organization, human resources management must meet certain requirements, which will affect the improvement of the workforce’s performance, and hence their greater productivity in the organization. Through this fulfillment and fulfillment of the basic and most valuable resources in the enterprise, we come to the fulfillment of the goals we strive for. If human resource management is unable to manage human resources, this can affect business, profit, and, in the worst case, the survival of that organization. The main goal of human resources management is to achieve the following goals:
1. The Functional Goal – The Human Resource Management function means the organization’s contribution to the extent necessary to achieve its goals and realize the organizational strategy. This would mean that resources should be used more rationally and efficiently in achieving organizational goals.
2. The organizational goal – as we have already pointed out – the most important factor for organization is the human resource, hence the efficiency and motivation of the employees should be improved in the best way and thus to meet the goals of the organization.
3. Social Objective – In everyday human relationships, social norms and value systems are very important in achieving good communication. Being ethical and socially responsible for the needs and challenges of society and minimizing the negative impacts of these demands on business organizations is also a major goal not only for human resources management but management as a whole.
4. Personal goal – Employee satisfaction is most important for every organization, but it is not enough to satisfy employees in the business sense, it is essential to help them achieve their personal goals. Only in this way can their trust be gained, and the employees will be satisfied and motivated for progress and greater personal contribution to the organization. Each of these goals has a significant impact on human resources management, thus improving the organization’s performance. Human resources as a common factor of all organizations is a source of complete contribution, through their personal abilities and skills. The activities that are required to make managers of all levels in human resources management should enable the organization to succeed, but the enterprise strategy must be adhered to. Recruiting skilled personnel is also one of the most important activities. With recruitment and selection activities, resources that are essential to the organization can be engaged. Quality assessment and choice of candidates depend on the further development and success of the company. Sometimes wrong evaluation can do a great deal of damage. Human resource management activities can directly and indirectly affect the organization’s productivity. Directly, there will be better and more efficient ways to achieve the goals and indirectly by affecting the improvement of working conditions. The human resources management activities are shown in the table below.
Human Resource Management Management:
Improve and Enhance:
Quality of work
level of professional qualifications and personnel
readiness to change